Arguments consist of premises and conclusions. Premises are structured so as to lend support to conclusions. The kind of support that a premise lends to a conclusion allows us to distinguish between deductive and inductive arguments. This week, you will be constructing both kinds of arguments.

Constructing Deductive and Inductive Arguments

Arguments consist of premises and conclusions. Premises are structured so as to lend support to conclusions. The kind of support that a premise lends to a conclusion allows us to distinguish between deductive and inductive arguments. This week, you will be constructing both kinds of arguments.

1.  In three premises each, construct one example of each following deductive argument form:

·  Modus ponens

·  Modus tollens

·  Hypothetical syllogism

·  Disjunctive syllogism

Make sure your arguments are deductively valid and that your examples are your own. Here are two examples of the general format that your arguments should take:

Modus ponens:

1.  If it is raining, then it is pouring.

2.  It is raining.

3.  Therefore, it is pouring.

Modus tollens:

1.  If Jack went to the grocery store, then he bought cookies.

2.  Jack did not buy cookies.

3.  Therefore, Jack did not go to the grocery store.

2.  After you construct the preceding deductive argument forms, construct a three premise syllogism. For example:

1.  All men are mortal.

2.  Socrates is a man.

3.  Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

3.  After you construct a three premise syllogism, construct one of each of the following inductive argument patterns:

·  Induction by enumeration

·  Reasoning by analogy

·  Statistical induction

·  Higher-level induction

Your examples of inductive argument patterns should not be expressed in premise form. Rather, they should be informally expressed in writing. You should have one paragraph for each pattern. Be as detailed as possible.

Finally, please remember to label your arguments. This makes it easier for them to be graded. Include your name, course section, and the date at the top of your assignment document.

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Individuals in later adulthood address developmental tasks that are unique to their life-span phase, and many of these tasks “are psychological in nature” (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016, p. 657). Many aspects of living as an older adult may differ significantly from what an individual experienced in an earlier phase of his or her life-span. For example, changes in older individuals’ income, living arrangements, social connections, and physical strength may influence how they view themselves, interact with others, and think about their futures.

Psychological Aspects of Later Adulthood

Individuals in later adulthood address developmental tasks that are unique to their life-span phase, and many of these tasks “are psychological in nature” (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016, p. 657). Many aspects of living as an older adult may differ significantly from what an individual experienced in an earlier phase of his or her life-span. For example, changes in older individuals’ income, living arrangements, social connections, and physical strength may influence how they view themselves, interact with others, and think about their futures.

This week, as you explore the psychological aspects of later adulthood, you consider theories of successful aging and their application to social work practice. You also consider how you might apply models of grieving to support families in a hospice environment when an aging family member approaches death.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Apply theories of successful aging to social work practice
  • Apply models of grieving to a hospice environment
  • Evaluate models of grieving as they relate to social work practice
  • Evaluate strategies for self-care as a social worker in grief counseling

Learning Resources

Note:To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in theCourse Materialssection of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., Brocksen S. (Eds.). (2014). Sessions: Case histories. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader].
“The Parker Family” (pp. 6-8)

Zastrow, C. H., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2016). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (10th ed.). Boston, MA:  Cengage Learning.
Chapter 15, “Psychological Aspects of Later Adulthood” (pp. 685-714)

Newell, J. M., & MacNeil, G. A. (2010). Professional burnout, vicarious trauma, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion fatigue: A review of theoretical terms, risk factors, and preventive methods for clinicians and researchers. Best Practice in Mental Health, 6(2), 57–68.
Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Shier, M. L., & Graham, J. R. (2011). Mindfulness, subjective well-being, and social work: Insight into their Interconnection from social work practitioners. Social Work Education, 30(1), 29–44.
Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Stroebe, M., & Schut, H. (1999). The dual process model of coping with bereavement: Rationale and description. Death Studies23(3), 197–224.
Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Zisook, S., & Shear, M. K. (2013). Bereavement, depression, and the DSM-5. Psychiatric Annals43(6), 252–254. doi:10.3928/00485713-20130605-03
Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2013). Parker family: Episode 2 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu

Note:  The approximate length of this media piece is 2 minutes.

Accessible player –Downloads–Download Video w/CCDownload AudioDownload Transcript

Optional Resources

Use the link below to access the MSW home page, which provides resources for your social work program.
MSW home page

Cappeliez, P., & Robitaille, A. (2010). Coping mediates the relationships between reminiscence and psychological well-being among older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 14(7), 807–818.

Ong, A. D., Bergeman, C. S., & Boker, S. M. (2009). Resilience comes of age: Defining features in later adulthood. Journal of Personality, 77(6), 1777–1804.

Ong, A. D., Bergeman, C. S., Bisconti, T. L., & Wallace, K. A. (2006). Psychological resilience, positive emotions, and successful adaptation to stress in later life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(4), 730–749.

Stroebe, M., & Schut, H. (2010). The dual process model of coping with bereavement: A decade on. Omega61(4), 273–289.

Weiss, D., & Lang, F. R. (2009). Thinking about my generation: Adaptive effects of a dual age identity in later adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 24(3), 729–734.

Discussion: Psychological Aspects of Aging

Theories of successful aging explain factors that support individuals as they grow old, contributing to their ability to function. Increasing your understanding of factors that support successful aging improves your ability to address the needs of elderly clients and their families.

To prepare for this Discussion, review this week’s media. In addition, select a theory of successful aging to apply to Sara’s case.

By Day 3

Post a Discussion in which you:

  • Explain key life events that have influenced Sara’s relationships. Be sure to substantiate what makes them key in your perspective.
  • Explain how you, as Sara’s social worker, might apply a theory of successful aging to her case. Be sure to provide support for your strategy.
By Day 5

Read a selection of your colleagues’ posts.

Respond to at least two colleagues who applied a theory of successful aging to Sara’s case that differs from the one you applied. State whether you agree that your colleague’s strategy for applying the theory to Sara’s case is likely to be helpful. Provide support for your response and suggest one additional way your colleague might support Sara’s psychological well-being.

Assignment: Models of Grieving

The death of a loved one is a significant event that everyone experiences. An individual’s social environment, including societal and familial cultural factors, may influence how an individual approaches death or grieves the loss of someone else who dies. You can anticipate addressing grief in your social work practice and, therefore, should develop an understanding of the grieving process.

Models of grieving may identify stages through which an individual progresses in response to the death of a loved one; however, these stages do not necessarily occur in lockstep order. People who experience these stages may do so in different order or revisit stages in a circular fashion. Understanding the various ways individuals cope with grief helps you to anticipate their responses and to assist them in managing their grief. Select one model of grieving to address in this assignment.

Addressing the needs of grieving family members can diminish your personal emotional, mental, and physical resources. In addition to developing strategies to assist grieving individuals in crisis, you must develop strategies that support self-care.

In this Assignment, you apply a grieving model to work with families in a hospice environment and suggest strategies for self-care.

By Day 7

Submit a 2- to 4-page paper in which you:

  • Explain how you, as a social worker, might apply the grieving model you selected to your work with families in a hospice environment.
    • Explain why you selected to use the grieving model you selected versus other models of grief.
  • Identify components of the grieving model that you think might be difficult to apply to your social work practice. Explain why you anticipate these challenges.
  • Identify strategies you might use for your own self care as a social worker dealing with grief counseling. Explain why these strategies might be effective.

Psychological Aspects of Later Adulthood

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Analyze sociocultural differences in perspectives on aging

Sociological Aspects of Later Adulthood

Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman (2016) refer to adults in later adulthood as “a population at risk” (p. 717). Why are individuals in later adulthood a vulnerable population? What role might social work play in addressing the needs of this population?

This week, you consider factors that impact the vulnerability of individuals in later adulthood, including differing cultural perspectives of older individuals and consider ways to increase support for this population in your local community.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze sociocultural differences in perspectives on aging
  • Apply perspectives on aging to social work practice
  • Evaluate local community resources for older individuals

Photo Credit: vm / E+ / Getty Images

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Zastrow, C. H., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2016). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (10th ed.). Boston, MA:  Cengage Learning.
Chapter 16, “Sociological Aspects of Later Adulthood”

Optional Resources

Use the link below to access the MSW home page, which provides resources for your social work program.
MSW home page

Tucker-Seeley, R. D., Li, Y., Sorensen, G., & Subramanian, S. V. (2011). Lifecourse socioeconomic circumstances and multimorbidity among older adults. BMC Public Health, 11(4), 313–321.

Discussion: Sociocultural Differences in Perspectives on Aging

Western cultures think of time in linear terms while other cultures perceive the passage of time in cyclical terms (Helman, 2005). Helman states, “The clock, the watch and the calendar are among the main cultural symbols of Western industrial society” (para. 3). How might a culture’s perception of time influence views of individuals in later adulthood? What other cultural differences might impact a people’s view of aging? This week, you explore different cultures’ perspectives on aging and consider how these differences might impact social work.

To prepare for this Discussion, research two cultures different from your own and compare their perspectives on aging to that of your own culture.

By Day 3

Post a Discussion that compares your culture’s perspective on aging to the perspectives of the two cultures you researched. Explain why you think these differences exist. Also, explain how different perspectives on aging might impact social work practice.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ posts.

By Day 5

Respond to at least two colleagues who addressed cultures that are different from the ones you addressed. Share an insight from reading your colleagues’ postings. Describe how you might incorporate the cultural perspectives on aging described by your colleagues into your own social work practice.

Be sure to support your responses with specific references to the resources. If you are using additional articles, be sure to provide full APA-formatted citations for your references.

Assignment: Community Resources for Older Individuals

Volunteers and political officials in local communities often campaign to improve conditions and provide services to increase the well-being of individuals and families living in those communities. If you are the parent of young children, you might focus on improving the local school or creating safe places where children can play. If you are an individual in later adulthood or a caregiver for an individual in later adulthood, what community resources might be important to you? For this week’s Assignment, you evaluate the resources that your local community provides for its older members.

To prepare for this Assignment, research the resources available in your local community to support the issues and concerns of the older population. Note any gaps in these services and consider what improvements might be made to existing services as well as what services should be added.

By Day 7

Submit a 2- to 4-page paper that includes the following:

  • A description of the services in your local community that support individuals in later adulthood
  • An evaluation of the effectiveness of the services you identified
  • A description of service gaps you identified
  • An explanation of how to improve existing services
  • A description of services that should be added, and why

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It is impossible to study the entirety of any particular population. However, researchers can collect data for their studies from a sample of a particular population. There are two methods of sampling available for researchers: probability sampling and nonprobability sampling. This week, you examine the terminology used for the sampling aspect of research as well as best practices for its implementation. Then you critique a research study’s use of sampling in order to further understand the relationship between sampling, causality, and generalizability.

Sampling

It is impossible to study the entirety of any particular population. However, researchers can collect data for their studies from a sample of a particular population. There are two methods of sampling available for researchers: probability sampling and nonprobability sampling. This week, you examine the terminology used for the sampling aspect of research as well as best practices for its implementation. Then you critique a research study’s use of sampling in order to further understand the relationship between sampling, causality, and generalizability.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Create two sampling structures
  • Evaluate strengths and limitations of two sampling methods
  • Analyze samples in a case study
  • Analyze generalizability in a case study
  • Evaluate method and methodology used in a research study

Photo Credit: [Hero Images]/[Hero Images]/Getty Images

Learning Resources

Note:To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in theCourse Materialssection of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Yegidis, B. L., Weinbach, R. W., & Myers, L. L.  (2018). Research methods for social workers (8th ed.). New York, NY:  Pearson.
Chapter 9, “Sampling Issues and Options” (pp. 202-222)

Optional Resources

Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. M. (Eds.). (2014).Social work case studies: Foundation year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader].
Social Work Research: Program Evaluation

Discussion 1: Sampling Structures

Probability and nonprobability are the two general categories of sampling. Probability sampling uses random selection, whereas nonprobability sampling does not. For example, if you wanted to study the effects of divorce on the psychological development of adolescents, you could gather a population of a certain number of adolescents whose parents were divorced. Then, out of that population, you could randomly select 25 of those people. If you wanted to use nonprobability sampling, you would choose specific people who had met predetermined criteria. For this Discussion, consider how samples would be chosen for both probability and nonprobability sampling structures.

By Day 3

Post your explanation of the following:

  • Using your research problem and the refined question you developed in Week 4, develop two sampling structures: probability and nonprobability.
  • Explain who would be included in each sample and how each sample would be selected.
  • Be specific about the sampling structures you chose, evaluating both strengths and limitations of each.

Please use the resources to support your answer.

By Day 5

Respond to a colleague’s post by suggesting an alternative sampling structure for their research question as well as an alternate way of selecting the sample. Please use the resources to support your answer.

Discussion 2: Generalizing Study Results

Generalizability is the extent to which research findings from your sample population can be applicable to a larger population. There are many best practices for ensuring generalizability. Two of those are making sure the sample is as much like the population as possible and making sure that the sample size is large enough to mitigate the chance of differences within the population. For this Discussion, read the case study titled “Social Work Research: Program Evaluation” and consider how the particular study results can be generalizable.

By Day 5

Post your explanation of who the sample is. Also explain steps researchers took to ensure generalizability. Be sure to discuss how the study results could possibly be generalizable. Please use the resources to support your answer.

By Day 7

Respond to a colleague’s post by suggesting two alternative ways that the study results could be generalizable. Please use the resources to support your answer.

Assignment: Research Design and Sampling

Using the empirical research article that your instructor approved in the Week 5 assignment, ask yourself: “Is this a quantitative research article or a qualitative research article?” Remember, in quantitative research, the emphasis is on measuring social phenomenon because it is assumed that everything can be observed, measured, and quantified. On the other hand, in qualitative research, it is assumed that social phenomenon cannot be easily reduced and broken down into concepts that can be measured and quantified. Instead, there may be different meanings to phenomenon and experiences. Often in qualitative research, researchers use interviews, focus groups and observations to gather data and then report their findings using words and quotations.

Consider how these different methods affect the sampling design and recruitment strategy, and ask yourself how the recruitment of research participants will affect the findings.

For this Assignment, submit a 3-4 page paper. Complete the following:

  • Read your selected empirical research article, and identify whether the study is a quantitative or qualitative study. Justify the reasons why you believe it is a quantitative or qualitative study. (Your instructor will indicate to you if you are correct in identifying the research design. This will point you to whether you will use the “Quantitative Article and Review Critique” or the “Qualitative Article and Review Critique” guidelines for the final assignment in week 10.)
  • Using the empirical research article, focus on the sampling method in the study and begin to evaluate the sampling method by answering the following:
    • Describe the sampling methods in your own words (paraphrase, do not quote from the article).
    • Describe the generalizability or the transferability of the research finding based on the sampling method.
    • Discuss the limitations the article identified with the sample and how those limitations affect the reliability or credibility.
    • Explain one recommendation you would make to improve the sampling plan of the study that would address these limitations in future research.

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This week, you are introduced to preparation and operationalization procedures for measuring data. In addition, you are introduced to a variety of ways to acquire quantitative data, including secondary data, systematic observation, interviews, questionnaires, and surveys. Regardless of which method for acquiring data you use, be aware of the potential for distortion and/or response bias, or forms of measurement error. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand issues of reliability and validity in measurement.

Data Collection and Measurement

This week, you are introduced to preparation and operationalization procedures for measuring data. In addition, you are introduced to a variety of ways to acquire quantitative data, including secondary data, systematic observation, interviews, questionnaires, and surveys. Regardless of which method for acquiring data you use, be aware of the potential for distortion and/or response bias, or forms of measurement error. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand issues of reliability and validity in measurement.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze how to measure a phenomenon
  • Analyze measurement instruments
  • Evaluate measurement instruments used in a research study

Photo Credit: [Hero Images]/[Hero Images]/Getty Images

Learning Resources

Note:To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in theCourse Materialssection of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Yegidis, B. L., Weinbach, R. W., & Myers, L. L.  (2018). Research methods for social workers (8th ed.). New York, NY:  Pearson.
Chapter 10, “Measurements Concepts and Issues” (pp. 223-245)
Chapter 11,” Methods for Acquiring Research Data” (pp. 246-275)
Chapter 12, “Data Collection Instruments” (pp. 277-294)

Windle,   G., Bennett, K. M., & Noyes, J. Windle, G., Bennett, K. M., &   Noyes, J. (2011). A methodological review of resilience scales. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9, 2-18. Retrieved from Walden Library databases

Walker, K. E., & Arbreton, A. J. A. (2001). Working together to build Beacon Centers in San Francisco: Evaluation findings from 1998–2000. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures. (see pp. 96-99 for measures). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED464212.pdf
See pp. 96–99 for measures

Document: Tips When Evaluating Instruments

Discussion 1: Methods of Measuring

The center point of research studies is the body of data collected to answer the research question. These data must be measured, which is the act of taking an abstract concept (e.g., depression, anger, etc.), sorting them out and quantifying them in some cohesive way in order to construct meaning—but how can you measure something that is not easily quantifiable?

Choosing an appropriate measurement tool requires consideration of a number of different issues including reliability, validity, appropriateness for use with a specific group or culture, availability, and potential cost. Sometimes, social workers will attempt to create their own set of questions to tap into or measure a concept. This may appear to be an easy thing to do; however, writing questions to measure a phenomenon is more challenging than it would seem. For example, how do we know it measures what we want it to measure?  In the first discussion this week, you will have the opportunity to create your own questions to measure a phenomenon of your interest. In the second discussion, you will compare the measure you created with an existing instrument that measures the same phenomenon.

To prepare: Choose one phenomenon or issue that a client may be dealing with (for example, depression, anxiety, or family conflict). Consider how you would evaluate the client’s progress in this area. Create questions with response options that would capture this phenomenon or client issue.

By Day 3
  • Identify the phenomenon you would measure and explain how you conceptualize this phenomenon.
  • Provide at least 3 questions you would use to measure this phenomenon and explain how these questions operationalize the phenomenon.
  • Define reliability in 2-3 sentences and give one example of how you would establish reliability for the questions you created.
  • Define validity in 2-3 sentences and give one example of how you would establish validity for the questions you created.
  • Create a measurement plan to assess the phenomenon.
    • Describe the methodology you would use to collect data using your measurement tool (your method for acquiring this research data).
    • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of your choices.
By Day 5

Respond to a colleague’s post by suggesting two alternative methods for measuring their phenomenon. Explain why your suggestions have value. Please use the resources to support your answer

Discussion 2: Evaluating Existing Measures

In discussion 1, you considered how you might create an instrument for measuring a phenomenon or client issue. For this week’s Discussion 2, choose and evaluate an existing instrument to measure the concept you identified in Discussion 1. Consider how you would compare your original measurement to the existing measurement.

To Prepare: Review the following at the Walden Library on how to find existing instruments:

http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/testsmeasures

By Day 5

Posta brief explanation of the existing measurement instrument that you identified. Then, compare your original measurement approach to the existing instrument. Next, explain how you would revise or replace your original measurement plan. Finally explain the advantages and/or disadvantages of using existing instruments for measurement. Please use the Learning Resources to support your answer.

By Day 7

Respond to a colleague’s post by suggesting one alternative advantage or disadvantage of their chosen existing instrument of measurement. Explain why your suggestions have value. Please use the resources to support your answer.

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By explaining whether the study is pre-experimental (cross-sectional, one-shot case study, and longitudinal), experimental (control group with pretest and posttest, posttest only, or four-group design), or quasi-experimental (comparing one group to itself at different times or comparing two different groups)

List of Articles below

Bauman, S. (2006). Using comparison groups in school counseling research: A primer. Professional School Counseling, 9(5), 357–366.
Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Kohl, P. L., Kagotho, J., & Dixon, D. (2011). Parenting practices among depressed mothers in the child welfare system. Social Work Research, 35(4), 215–225.
Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Leung, P., Erich, S., & Kanenberg, H. (2005). A comparison of family functioning in gay/lesbian, heterosexual and special needs adoptions. Children and Youth Services Review, 27(9), 1031–1044.
Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Moran, J., & Bussey, M. (2007). Results of an alcohol prevention program with urban American Indian youth. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 24(1), 1–21.
Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Pinderhughes, E. E., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Zelli, A. (2000). Discipline responses: Influences of parents’ socioeconomic status, ethnicity, beliefs about parenting, stress, and cognitive-emotional processes. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(3), 380–400.
Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Southerland, D., Mustillo, S., Farmer, E., Stambaugh, L., & Murray, M. (2009). What’s the relationship got to do with it? Understanding the therapeutic relationship in therapeutic foster care. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26(1), 49–63.
Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

our response to the following: Describe which groups are compared in  the research. Then, classify the research design as follows:

  1. By explaining whether the study is pre-experimental  (cross-sectional, one-shot case study, and longitudinal), experimental  (control group with pretest and posttest, posttest only, or four-group  design), or quasi-experimental (comparing one group to itself at  different times or comparing two different groups)
  2. By indicating what the researchers report about limitations of the study
  3. By explaining concerns you have regarding internal validity and the ability of the study to draw conclusions about causality
  4. By explaining any concerns you have about the  generalizability of the study (external validity) and what aspect of the  research design might limit generalizability

APA format. Must use references given.

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