Discussion Questions 19763415

Discussion question one: Functions of sleep

Based on your reading and research, which hypothesis or hypotheses on the functions of sleep do you agree with and why? How would you use this explanation(s) to assess a patient who has chronic insomnia, and has already had extensive treatment with hypnotic (sleep-inducing) medications? Respond to at least two of your classmatesÂ’ posts no later than Monday, Day 7.

Discussion questio two:Positive Reward Hypothesis

Use the text and other resources such as the NIDA Website to research hypotheses and models surrounding drug addiction and abuse. Discuss the positive reward (or positive reinforcement) hypothesis of drug abuse and compare it with at least one other explanation of drug abuse. How does the positive reward hypothesis compare with other models of drug abuse in your opinion? How would you use this model to treat a patient who chronically abuses methamphetamines? Respond to at least two of your classmatesÂ’ posts no later than Monday, Day 7.

Resources Required Resources

Wilson, Josephine F. (2013). Biological Basis of Behavior. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. ISBN: 9781621781035 Chapter 8: Consciousness and Sleep Chapter 9: Eating, Drinking, and Temperature Regulation Chapter 10: Regulation of Sexual Behavior Chapter 11: Biological Bases of Emotion and Addiction

DrugAbuse. Gov http://www.nida.nih.gov/NIDAHome.html (Links to an external site.)or http://www.drugabuse.gov/ (Links to an external site.) Website for the National Institute on Drug Abuse Recommended Resources

Berridge, KC (2007) The debate over dopamine’s role in reward: the case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology, 191(3), 391-432. (ProQuest ID: 1228075671)

Recommended Sources:

Blum, K., Gondré-Lewis, M. C., Baron, D., Thanos, P. K., Braverman, E. R., Neary, J., & Badgaiyan, R. D. (2018, November 27). Introducing precision addiction management of reward deficiency syndrome, the construct that underpins all addictive behaviors. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9(Article 548), 1-14. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00548

Burkett, J. P., & Young, L. J. (2012, November). The behavioral, anatomical and pharmacological parallels between social attachment, love and addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 224(1), 1-26. doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2794-x

Edwards, S., & Koob, G. F. (2010). Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction. Future Neurology, 5(3), 393-410. doi:10.2217/fnl.10.14

Gordon, H. W. (2016, April). Laterality of brain activation for risk factors of addiction. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 9 (1), 1-18. doi:10.2174/1874473709666151217121309

Piazza, P. V., & Deroche-Gamonet, V. (2013). A multistep general theory of transition to addiction. Psychopharmacology, 229, 387-413. doi:10.1007/s00213-013-3224-4

Puig, M. V., Rose, J., Schmidt, R., & Freund, N. (2014, August 5). Dopamine modulation of learning and memory in the prefrontal cortex: Insights from studies in primates, rodents, and birds. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 8(Article 93), 1-15. doi:10.3389/fncir.2014.00093

Richter, A., Guitart-Masip, M. .., Barman, A., Libeau, C., Behnisch, G., Czerney, S., . . . Schott, B. H. (2014, August). Valenced action/inhibition learning in humans is modulated by a genetic variant linked to dopamine D2 receptor expression. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 8(Article 140), 1-12. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2017.00140  

Scofield, M. D., Heinsbroek, J. A., Gipson, C. D., Kupchik, Y. M., Spencer, S., Smith, A. C., . . . Kalivas, P. W. (2016, July 1). The nucleus accumbens: Mechanisms of addiction across drug classes reflect the importance of glutamate homeostasis. Pharmacological Reviews, 68(3), 816-871. doi:10.1124/pr.116.012484

Volkow, N. D., & Baler, R. D. (2014). Addiction science: Uncovering neurobiological complexity. Neuropharmacology, 76, 235-249. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.05.007

Willuhn, I., Wanat, M. J., Clark, J. J., & Phillips, P. E. (2010). Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens of animals self-administering drugs of abuse. Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 29-71. doi:10.1007/7854_2009_27


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